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    您現在的位置:美味人生 >> 美味人生 >> 飲食文化 >> 西方人和中國人飲食中的牛肉

    西方人和中國人飲食中的牛肉

    發布日期:2014年11月17日 14:05

    中國人的肉食中,80%以上是豬,牛肉只占2.5%上下。西方世界的肉食剛剛相反,諺語說:“西餐無牛,廚師束手。”試看外國的肉類菜肴,大多是牛肉做的,歐洲著名的牛肉菜如法國諾曼底的“油涮牛肉”,意大利“佛羅倫薩牛排”,德國“漢堡牛扒”,瑞士“風干牛肉”和“蘇黎世牛肉片”,荷蘭“生牛肉”,比利時“烤小牛肉”,羅馬尼亞“燜牛肉”等;在南美洲,牛是阿根廷的寶貴財富。他們說“阿根廷沒有烤牛肉,就不成其為阿根廷了”,墨西哥人在假日里愛吃的食品則是“煨牛肚”,秘魯利馬的街頭巷尾都是“烤牛心串”;澳大利亞國食之一有“烤牛肉”,瑙魯國人最喜愛的飯食是澳大利亞咸牛肉蓋著的米飯。吃得多,也就講究,后來講究吃小牛肉,養幾個月就宰,不見肥膘,全鉆到肌纖維縫里去了,星星點點,吃起來細嫩腴滑。日本對此有個名稱:“霜降牛肉”,以神戶所產為最佳(又稱“松坂牛肉”),其品質被演繹得神乎其神。

    事實上,中國人也是很會吃牛的。先不說牛肉,其他如牛內臟和牛頭、牛舌、牛尾、牛皮、牛血、牛骨、牛鞭、牛髓等,莫不可變成佳肴美食。傣族以牛皮制“酸皮”;回族以牛髓制“牛骨髓油茶”;連牛睪丸也是上等材料,切成片明亮澄黃、油潤光澤,和鮑魚片幾乎一樣。廣東一帶合牛肝、牛心、牛雙弦(肚)為“牛三星”,經精細刀工處理后,焯、炒、涮都行,甚具特色。湘菜之中則有“牛中三杰”—“發貢百頁”、“紅燒牛蹄筋”、“燴牛腦髓”,是長沙百年老店的名菜。而湖南的“原蒸牛鞭”加配藥料,又是一款溫補之補饌。四川,牛肉名菜自不必說,妙在遍地盡出牛身上的小吃。知名度甚高的“夫妻肺片”,系以牛肉、牛肚、牛頭皮、牛蹄、牛舌、牛心、牛肺等切薄大片雜拌而成,是一種可以留下深刻印象的美味食品;它如成都的“牛肉焦餅”、“小籠蒸牛肉”,溫江的“彭縣大傘牛肉”、“小碗紅湯牛肉”,樂山的“熏牛肉”,內江的“牛肉毛面”,重慶的“涼拌牛肉”,達縣的“燈影牛肉”,南充的“掛掛牛肉”、“馬癩子干牛肉”、“紅燈籠軟酥牛肉”、“白燈籠軟酥牛肉”、“五香烤牛肉”、“閬中熏牛肉”,自貢的“爪爪牛肉”、“牛肉抄手”,邛崍的“牛肉蕎面”等,以及“牛肉湯鍋”、“鹽煎牛肉”、“水煮牛肉”、“麻辣牛肉條”、“涼拌肝肚”等,特別是那令人酣暢淋漓的“毛肚火鍋”,獨有奇趣。在北京,前門“月盛齋”、大柵欄“復順齋”、牛街“聚寶源”,以“醬牛肉”鼎足而三;而“南宛北季”的烤牛肉又是一番風情,清人《都門瑣記》有如下的描述:“置爐于庭,熾炭盈盆,加鐵柵其上,切生羊、牛肉片極薄,漬以諸料,以碟盛之。其爐可圍十數人,各持碟踞爐旁,且烤且啖,佐以燒酒,過者皆覺其香美。”《燕都雜錄》詩以狀之:“濃煙熏得涕潸潸,柴火光中照醉顏。盤滿生膻憑一炙,如斯嗜尚近夷蠻。”

    吃出了風格的牛肴,進入餐館,意趣又不同了。廣東,有人稱牛肉菜為“太牢菜”,菜式趨于細膩精巧,如“蠔油牛肉”、“咖喱牛肉”、“茄汁牛柳”、“郊菜扒牛丸”、“酥炸牛丸”、“掛爐牛肉”、“西湖牛”、“鐵扒牛”等,也是美不勝收;至于東江的“爽口牛肉丸”,脆嫩有彈性,鮮香而爽口,不輸于豬肉丸、魚丸、羊肉丸。在其他地方,牛肉在烹飪名師的手下,也是異彩紛呈,各有個性——山西“平遙牛肉”,遼寧本溪“熏牛百葉”,河南“鹵牛肝”、“鹵牛腰”、“鹵牛心”和“牛肉醬”,山東濟南“辣味牛脯”,江蘇“六合牛脯”,青海果洛“咖喱牦牛肉干”,浙江溫州“牛肉焙片”,廣東大埔“百侯牛肉干“,云南“牛干巴”,黑龍江“顆粒牛肉松”…遍地牛肴,都是名產。 

    所屬類別: 飲食文化

    該資訊的關鍵詞為:

    皇都彩票

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